Judah Moss Solomon, of Solomon family fame being Emmanuel Solomon's (founding member of the SA mining company) nephew was elected first president of the congregation. Judah who later became Mayor of Adelaide and the Adelaide City member of the House of Assembly amongst other achievements was president in 1848 when the the congregation had received subscriptions to commission the building of a 35 feet by 20 feet schoolroom and place of worship . The Adelaide Hebrew Congregation engaged Architect W. Weir to provide the plans for the buildings which was to be situated on Rundle Street.
The Synagogue which was described as being 'Egyptian" in style provided for the Adelaide Hebrew Congregation until 1860 when adherents increased from 48 to 360 in slightly over a decade. It was decided that a new Synagogue would be required and the congregation engaged Architects Wright, Woods & Hamilton, who designed the new Synagogue in an Italianate style using Dry Creek stone. The consecration of the building occurred on 26 March 1871.
The Hebrew congregation was highly regarded with many prominent positions being held by the congregation; including parliamentarians, aldermen, councillors and mayorships. The Adelaide Hebrew Congregation was credited with having significant influence in the commercial, political and municipal life of the colony with some adherents being founding member of the prestigious Adelaide Club.
By 1891 the Jewish population had reached its peak at 840 adherents and it was proposed by Levi Isaacs that the site be redeveloped to provide an income for the community. Five shops designed by Edward Davies were built on the site which required the moving of the Synagogue's facade to Synagogue Place. In 1936 the new facade was designed by architect Chris A. Smith in an interwar Art-Deco style.
The Synagogue has been little altered with the interior retaining much of its 1870's character until its conversion to a night club c.2008. Apple Bar currently occupies the Synagogue.